Administrative Contact

for a domain name

The Administrative Contact, also called admin-c, is the contact point for administrative changes. The administrative contact is informed by email when a change is made for a domain (address changes, moves, etc.) with the registry. In case of a move request, approval is requested from the administrative contact by different registries with a message to the email address registered with the admin-c.

Application pool

An application pool is a virtual, isolated environment on a web server in which one or more applications can run. A website is an application, but a website can also consist of a number of applications.
An application pool has a certain amount of system resources at its disposal that are shared between all the applications in the relevant pool.

Internet Information Services 6.0 Features
An application pool is a grouping of URLs that is routed to one or more worker processes. Because application pools define a set of Web applications that share one or more worker processes, they provide a convenient way to administer a set of Web sites and applications and their corresponding worker processes. Process boundaries separate each worker process; therefore, a Web site or application in one application pool will not be affected by application problems in other application pools. Application pools significantly increase both the reliability and manageability of a Web infrastructure.

ASP

Active Server Pages. A server-side script language in which HTML, scripts and reusable ActiveX server components can be combined to make dynamic websites. This works most optimally in combination with an IIS web server.
Click here for more information.

ASP.NET

“Microsoft ASP.NET is more than just the next generation of Active Server Pages (ASP). It provides an entirely new programming model for creating network applications that take advantage of the Internet.”

Click here for more information.

Blacklists

(RBL, DNSBL)

DNS-based blacklists (block lists) are simply name servers with zones. IP-addresses that are on the relevant blacklist are placed in a zone. A mail server administrator has the option of using a blacklist to refuse access to hosts (IP-addresses, mail servers). For each incoming connection to an incoming mail server, the relevant IP address is called up to be screened against the configured blacklist.

Botnet

Botnets are networks of thousands and sometimes millions of computers. They can be controlled remotely by cyber criminals without the knowledge of the owner of the computer. These criminals use the infected computers to send spam, attack other computers or networks, or to store and forward illegal material. Spam experts have calculated that about 90% of all spam messages are sent via botnets.

bSMTP

The abbreviation bSMTP stands for batched Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. This saves up the email that is received for you until it can be delivered. When your mail server is online and it connects to the VEVIDA mail servers, the email messages are delivered directly via a new connection, via SMTP. When your mail server is not online, the email is stored by VEVIDA.

Click here for more information.

Cache

Depending on the browser settings, it may be that the browser does not show the most recent version of a web page. When a web page is visited, this is saved by the browser in the temporary internet files. These files are called the cache. Using the cache, the browser does not have to send the request over the internet the next time the same page is visited, but can call up the local files. In this way the web page is displayed on screen more quickly.
If the web page has just been changed, this will not be seen by visitors because they (via the browser) are looking at the files that were downloaded earlier. It is possible to set the browser to always check whether a newer version of a webpage is available online:

Internet Explorer:

  1. Click Internet options in the Tools menu
  2. Under the General tab, click Settings for Browsing history
  3. Check Every time I visit the webpage for Check for newer versions of stored pages

CGI

Common Gateway Interface. CGI is not a script language, but a standard to execute external programs via a web server. CGI specifies how arguments in the program/script are to be included as part of HTTP requests.

CGI was developed by NCSA in 1993 for the NCSA HTTPd web server. Data from the query string are forwarded by the web server as environment variables to the CGI program that has been called up, and these are used by the program as parameters. The program sends the result of processing back to the web server, and the web server sends it back to the browser. CGI programs are treated fundamentally differently by the web server than static HTML pages or ISAPI scripts. For this reason, CGI programs need special rights (execute permissions). Such programs are often put together in a directory where the necessary rights are in place for all files in that directory. A commonly used name for such a directory is cgi-bin.

A script language can be used for CGI-programs, as can a compiled program. In Windows it is even possible to have a DOS batch-file function as a CGI-program.

Script languages that are frequently used for CGI are Perl ([2]), Python and Ruby.

For CGI, a new process is started and run every time a CGI program is called up. This can lead to capacity problems in case of a large number of requests. More recently developed technologies such as PHP, ASP and ColdFusion overcome this problem. With these technologies, the scripts run in-process in the web server.

Cluster

A (server) cluster is a group of independent servers that work together as a single system to maintain high availability.

CMS

Content Management System, a name for a collection of scripts to maintain websites online. There are dozens to hundreds of different CMS scripts. It is possible to place and use different CMS’s on our web servers (whether or not in combination with a MySQL database), including:

CMS’s you write yourself, for example in the script languages ASP, ASP.NET, PHP or CGI/Perl, can also be placed and used on our web servers.

Communication module

The “Support” form in MyVevida.

DNS

Domain Name System. The system contains a worldwide decentralized database of domain names with a hierarchical structure.
Click here for more information.

Domain name

A domain name is a unique name on the internet, for example vevida.com (note: a domain name never begins with ‘www’).
In the jargon, we primarily talk about SLD‘s, Second Level Domain names. A TLD can be either a ccTLD (Country Code, such as .nl) or a gTLD (Generic, such as.com). The example below explains this:
www.vevida.nl

  • www: subdomain
  • vevida: SLD
  • .nl: ccTLD

Domain name holder

See Holder

FastCGI

An IIS ISAPI extension to execute Common Gateway Interface (CGI) applications in a high-performance environment. In contrast to CGI applications, a process is not started for every HTTP request, but the ISAPI remains loaded in the memory of the server. This allows it to load much more quickly.
http://www.iis.net/fastcgi

FTP

File Transfer Protocol, a way to upload files from a client PC to a web server via the FTP protocol.
Click here for more information.

Holder

A holder is an institution or person under whose name a .nl domain name is registered. The holder is responsible for this domain name and its use, as well as the correctness of the information laid down for this domain name.

Hosting-Update(s)

Maintenance, malfunctions and updates are reported in MyVEVIDA (news) and via a special mailing list (the Hosting-Updates mailing list). From time to time we will also issue reports on new viruses, serious security breaches, etc.

Registration:

HTML

HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language.
It is a mark-up language that tells the browser how a page is to be displayed. More information and a course in English can be found at W3Schools.

iisreset

Restarting the web server component, IIS.

“IISreset is designed to easily allow Web administrators to take a server offline or recycle services through the command line, the Task Scheduler, or batch commands that perform additional tasks.”

IMAP4

Internet Message Access Protocol version 4. A protocol to read email online. Copies are downloaded to the client; the original message remains available on the (IMAP) server. IMAP is therefore also referred to as a remote mailbox.
Technical specifications are included in the document Request For Comments 3501.

ISAPI

ISAPI (Internet Server Application Programming Interface) consists of two components: Extensions and Filters. These are the only two types of applications that can be developed using ISAPI. Both Filters and Extensions must be written in C++ or C# (C-Sharp) and be compiled in DLL files. These DLL files are then registered in IIS to be able to run on the server.

Extensions
ISAPI Extensions are true applications that run on IIS and have access to all of the functionality provided by IIS. ISAPI Extensions are implemented as DLL files that are loaded in a process that is controlled by IIS. Clients can approach ISAPI Extensions in the same way as static HTML pages. Examples of ISAPI applications (Extensions) include:

  • Active Server Pages (ASP)
  • ASP.NET
  • Perl ISAPI (Perlis)
  • PHP (FastCGI)

ISAPI processes are ‘in-process’: they run in the memory of the web server; a new process does not need to be started for every request.

Linked domain

(DRWH, Domain Registration Without Hosting)
A linked domain is a domain without a hosting package that is linked to a “primary domain” with web space. With a linked domain you can make your website accessible under a number of domain names, or you can use a number of websites on one hosting package.

No DNS services are provided for a linked domain. The data from the primary domains also apply to the linked domain.

MDAC

(Microsoft Data Access Components)

Microsoft Data Access Components is the framework that provides communication between a (Microsoft Windows) web server and a database. It includes three API components: ODBC, OLEDB and ADO. Each is optimised for different types of applications.
Click here for more information.

MySQL

MySQL is a relational database management system. A relational database prefers to save the data in separate tables rather than in one long list. A major advantage of this is speed and flexibility. MySQL is open source.
Click here for more information.

MyVevida

The control panel (management system to change settings and data per domain) of VEVIDA, http://www.myVEVIDA.com.

Network

For home use: LAN, or Local Area Network. A small network between two or more PCs;
Otherwise: WAN, Wide Area Network, or internet: a chain or smaller networks;
Large ‘Tier 1’ providers install their own global networks (around the world). Vevida’s servers are placed at TCN Data Hotel in Groningen and NLDC Groningen. Click here for more information.

Parser

A program that interprets and executes a certain script via the web server.

“An algorithm or program to determine the syntactic structure of a sentence or string of symbols in some language. A parser normally takes as input a sequence of tokens output by a lexical analyser.”

Password

A password is a secret code that you create yourself.

PHP

PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. A server-side, platform independent, HTML embedded script language to create dynamic websites. PHP is open source.
Click here for more information.

POP3

Post Office Protocol version 3. A protocol to fetch (download) email from a (POP3) server, such that the emails are deleted from the server. Technical specifications are included in the document Request For Comments 1939.
Another protocol is IMAP4.

Registry

A registry is a company at which domains can be purchased (registered) and they facilitate specific extensions. A registry manages an extension. Examples include:

  • SIDN (.nl);
  • DNS.BE (.be);
  • EURid (.eu);
  • AFNIC (.fr);
  • DENIC (.de);
  • OpenSRS (.com, .net, .org, .info, etc.);
  • Network Solutions (.com, .net, .org, .info, etc);
  • Joker.com (.com, .net, .org, .info, etc.);
  • Nominet (.uk);
  • NUnames (.nu);

Script, scripting

Scripts can be interpreted on the server-side or client-side. Server-side scripts, such as ASP/PHP/CGI/Perl are interpreted and executed and/or translated to HTML by the web server. None of this can be found in the source code in the visitor’s browser. Client-side scripts, such as HTML and/or JavaScript are interpreted and executed by the browser, for example Internet Explorer or Firefox, not by the web server. Support for a client-side script is optional.

“A server-side language is one whose code is meant to run on the server which holds the page content; the opposite is a client-side language, which is run on the computer of the user viewing the content.”

Server

A computer, comparable to a home PC, but with faster (and/or more) processors, RAM and hard drive capacity. For reliability, VEVIDA only uses DELL servers.

SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. The protocol that is used to send email. Technical specifications are included in the document Request For Comments 2821.

SQL

SQL stands for Structured Query Language; SQL is the standard language to approach databases.
Click here for more information.

Technical Contact

for a domain name

The Technical Contact for a domain name, also called tech-c, is the contact point for technical problems with regard to the domain name. Technical changes will also initially be discussed with the technical contact.

Unload

Restarting parsers in a certain application pool. The pool is emptied.

URI

Universal Resource Identifier. The generic set of abbreviations of all the names and addresses that refer to objects (usually on the internet). The most common forms of URIs are URLs.
URIs are defined in RFC 1630.

URL

Uniform Resource Locator. A standard way to specify the location of an object (usually a website) on the internet. For example:

  • http://www.vevida.com
  • http://www.vevida.com/en/help
  • ftp://spy:secret@ftp.acme.com/pub/topsecret/weapon.tgz
  • mailto:info@vevida.com
  • news:nl.internet.www.algemeen

Vevida

Your web hosting provider, for the private and business market! Reliable and inexpensive hosting.

Warriors of the Net

An animated film from 1999, that explains how the internet works in a clear and simple (and funny) way. A must-see for every internet user.

Part 1 (YouTube, +/-6 minutes)
Part 2 (YouTube, +/-6 minutes)
http://www.warriorsofthe.net website

Web hosting

The provision and maintenance of a domain name / website on the internet.

Web server

Software to serve website content. VEVIDA uses IIS 6.0 in combination with the Windows 2003 operating system.

WSE

Web Services Enhancements.

“Web services specifications compose together to provide interoperable protocols for Security, Reliable Messaging and Transactions in loosely coupled systems. The specifications build on top of the core XML and SOAP standards.”

More information

If you feel that terms and their definitions/explanations are missing, please let us know. We will then try to add them as quickly as possible.
The meanings of many abbreviations and terms can be found online at the FOLDOC (Free OnLine Dictionary Of Computing) website:
www.foldoc.org. Or, in Dutch, at nl.wikipedia.org.

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